5 edition of Introduction to microlithography found in the catalog.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
|Statement||L.F. Thompson, editor, C.G. Willson, editor, M.J. Bowden, editor ; based on a workshop sponsored by the ACS Division of Organic Coatings and Plastics Chemistry at the 185th Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Seattle, Washington, March 20-25, 1983.|
|Series||ACS symposium series,, 219|
|Contributions||Thompson, L. F., 1944-, Willson, C. G. 1939-, Bowden, M. J., 1943-, American Chemical Society. Division of Organic Coatings and Plastics Chemistry., American Chemical Society. Meeting|
|LC Classifications||TR940 .I57 1983|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||ix, 363 p. :|
|Number of Pages||363|
|LC Control Number||83005968|
For chemically amplified resists, residual solvent can significantly influence diffusion and reaction properties during the post-exposure bake, necessitating careful control over the post-apply bake process. The most obvious method is an oven bake. Scanners and steppers use different techniques for exposing a large wafer with a small image field. A rigorous description of this process would require a fundamental knowledge of the various mechanisms that control the dissolution rate of the photoresist in its developing solvent.
The areas of the substrate that are no longer covered by photoresist can then subjected to further processing such as plasma etching or ion implantaion. The hard bake solidifies the remaining photoresist, to make a more durable protecting layer in future ion implantationwet chemical etchingor plasma etching. Finally, doping involves the addition of controlled amounts of contaminants that change the conductive properties of a semiconductor. With the "additive" process it is necessary to "lift-off" the deposit in selected areas. Back to the Lithography Home
There are two classes of resist stripping techniques: wet stripping using organic or inorganic solutions, and dry plasma stripping. Other methods have been proposed to harden a photoresist image. The basic idea in OPC is to correct for distortions in the final printed image relative to the original mask design that are introduced by optical distortions in the exposure tool and other various processing effects see Figure 1. Main article: Etching microfabrication In etching, a liquid "wet" or plasma "dry" chemical agent removes the uppermost layer of the substrate in the areas that are not protected by photoresist.
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The processes for the fabrication of planar structures on different substrates metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics, as crystals, polycrystals or amorphous can be divided into two groups. Final thickness is also determined by the evaporation of liquid solvents from the resist.
It is often necessary to follow a wet strip by a plasma descum to completely clean the wafer of resist residues. The last step in the lithographic process is the development of the exposed resist layer to form the final relief image patterns. A proximity printer puts a small gap between the photomask and wafer.
The typical minimum feature size in these early products was greater than 20 mm, significantly smaller than some of their discrete transistor counterparts.
The carboxylic acid product is very soluble in the basic developer. The aerial image can be described as the intensity of radiation as a function of position at the surface of the wafer plane, I x,y.
In other words, only the distortions due to the propagation of light through the lens systems have been simulated, thus ignoring the effects of resist chemistry and processing. Monochromatic light, when projected onto a wafer, Introduction to microlithography book the photoresist surface over a range of angles, approximating plane waves.
Back to the Lithography Home While optical exposure is the major focus of this course, electron beam and x-ray exposure are also addressed, as is nanoimprint lithography. These detrimental effects are best cured by coating the substrate with a thin absorbing layer called a bottom antireflective coating BARC that can reduce the reflectivity seen by the photoresist to less than 1 percent.
All details can be found in the huge amount of available literature. Such an optical system is said to be diffraction-limited, since it is diffraction effects and not lens aberrations which, for the most part, determine the shape of the image.
Photolithography produces better thin film transistor structures than printed electronicsdue to smoother printed layers, less wavy patterns, and more accurate drain-source electrode registration. The characteristics of the resist-developer interactions determine to a large extent the shape of the photoresist profile and, more importantly, the linewidth control.
The plot also shows the lithographic technologies used to manufacture each device generation. As modern processes use increasingly large wafers, these conditions become increasingly difficult.
The procedure described here omits some advanced treatments, such as thinning agents or edge-bead removal. By selecting the resist "polarity" as well as the type of surface processing - etching or lift-off - the designer can optimise the microfabrication process, in terms of time, cost, resolution, environmental impact, etc.
Also, photoresist which has undergone extensive hardening e. Author by : William B. Novolac polymers are soluble in a variety of common organic solvents. The mask design is distorted in such a way as to print the desired feature shape, negating the effect of processing distortions.
Both contact and proximity lithography require the light intensity to be uniform across an entire wafer, and the mask to align precisely to features already on the wafer. Substrate contamination can take the form of particulates or a film and can be either organic or inorganic.This book is intended to serve as an introduction to the science of microlithography for people who are unfamiliar with the subject.
Topics directly related to the tools used to manufacture 5/5(1). This text is intended to serve as an introduction to the science of microlithography, but also covers several subjects in depth, making it useful to the experienced lithographer as well.
Topics directly related to manufacturing tools are addressed, including overlay, the stages of exposure, tools, and light sources. Introduction to Microlithography:2nd (Second) edition by C.
Grant Wilson (Editor) Larry F. Thompson (Editor), Murrae J. Bowden (Editor) | May 28, Hardcover. 1. Integrated Circuits: A Brief History. The semiconductor industry can trace its roots back to the invention of the first semiconductor transistor by William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain at Bell Labs in 1 Their crude device was assembled from a small piece of germanium, some gold foil, a paper clip, and several pieces of plastic.
EECS Nanophotonics and Nanoscale Fabrication by hildebrandsguld.com 17 Challenges in lens design Larger lens (required by better resolution) Æaberration Suitably rotating the lens in the step-and-scan system can minimize the aberration Finite linewidth of laser source Ædispersion Aspheric lens Æmore expensive Tighter spec on surface quality of lens.
This book is intended as a guide to the researcher new to this field, reading related journals or facing the complexities of a technical conference. Its goal is to give enough background information to enable such a researcher to understand, and appreciate, new developments in nanolithography, and to go on to make advances of his/her own.